There is significant evidence of massive fires, associated with major ecosystem disruption, and extinctions, at the Younger Dryas Boundary layer at locations in California’s North Channel Islands. See Wildfire and abrupt ecosystem disruption on California’s Northern Channel Islands at the Ållerød–Younger Dryas boundary (13.0–12.9 ka) by D.J. Kennet et al. The nano-diamonds, and other evidences, which have been found on the islands off the coast clearly show that the comet fragments were falling as far west as the Pacific Ocean. This implied that there should be accompanying melt formations in California related to some of those impacts. There are, and they are within walking distance of my home.
lat 36.470550 lon –119.16445
Colvin mountain is about 20 miles southeast of my home. Prospectors have been poking, prodding, and core drilling there since the gold rush days. So we can know a lot about its internal structure. The 2010 Geologic map defines the mountain as Paleozoic mixed rocks. Which is true enough to describe the heart of the mountain. But there is no mention of the pristine, geo-ablative melt formations, and welded breccias, of its outer surface. There is also no mention in the literature of the fact that those thermal glazed, flash melted rocks are as magnetic as any meteorite.
This side of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith hasn’t been volcanically active in 200 million years, or so. Or since the early Mesozoic. There has never been a volcanic vent here. Yet the mountain is covered in fusion glazed, and welded, geo-ablative blast melt, as pristine as the day it first cooled. And the patterns of movement, and flow, frozen into them at the time of their emplacement make it perfectly clear that the ripples of melt were being driven up slope by atmospheric forces like ripples of debris laden froth, and foam, on a storm tossed beach.
The Geologists of the past could not see the clear patterns of movement, and flow in the flash melted stone. Or if they did, they couldn’t conceive of such heat, and pressure, coming from the sky. And they simply ignored their pristine condition, and way they moved as a fluid. To be fair, those patterns of movement, and flow, are only evident from aerial imagery that has only become available in the past decade.
To one driving by on the country roads below, those vertical grooves you see running upslope look like the sides of an ancient, eroded, volcanic plug. So that, when viewed from ground level, on the Valley floor it may appear that the grooves are what we see when intrusive magma cools, and crystallizes. But those melted rocks do not consist of lava, or any form of magmatic material.
The ripples of welded blast melt, and breccias, are a proxy map for the direction of the blast wind blowing over the mountain. The melt is only on the outer surface. And the thermal glaze heat signature is more pronounced on the west, and south, faces of any given foothill in the area. The pristine thermal glaze on the outer surface of the rocks is a common feature in the area, no matter the rock type. On the lee side of the local foothills effected this way, you will typically find house sized mega breccias from the other side of the mountain mixed in with the welded melt.
When you stand among those rocks, and you have a piece of it in your hand, you can clearly see that it consists of partially welded alluvium, and blast melt, that formed in layers as the mist of high velocity, aerosol blast melt accumulated, and mixed, with little clumps of partially welded, ordinary dirt. And that splashed, and tumbled, up-slope in the blast wind. Like the frothing, debris laden, foam on a storm tossed beach.
All of the dark exposed rocks you see in these images consist of accumulations of geo-ablative, impact melt. They are as magnetic as any meteorite. And their outer surfaces are covered with 3 mm to 5 mm of black, thermal glaze, that has a remarkable similarity to accumulations of weld spatter, or slag in a foundry. Or the fusion glaze on the outside of a meteorite. And magnetic, thermal glazes of the outer surfaces of those rocks didn’t look any different when it was still fresh, hot, and smoking. Except for some grass growing in the cracks, these flash melted rocks are almost perfectly pristine.
The entire outer surface of this mountain, and much of the west, and south, faces of the local foot hills is so welded that the Friant-Kern canal you see in the image below serves a duel purpose. In addition to carrying water from Friant damn, which holds back lake Millerton, It provides flash flood protection. When it rains here, the water runs off welded slopes like this like water off a roof. So the canal is also a rain gutter.
The Geologists of the past who produced the 1966 California Geology map defined the mountain as Mesozoic. And on the new 2010 map the mountain is defined as Paleozoic mixed rocks. But having hiked among those ripples of pristine blast melted stone, I can tell you that neither map is correct. Because, in fact, those dark ripples of windswept melt consist primarily of recognizable fragments of partially welded alluvium, swept up into the blast wind from the valley floor. The melt is as magnetic as any meteorite. And it’s all finished off with that fusion glaze. A short little day hike will reveal conclusively that the underlying structure of the mountain is non-volcanic. Yet that day hike will also have you standing among among perfectly pristine, magnetic, thermal glazed, melt formations. The likes of which, there is no mention in the literature.
The melted rocks, and flash melted alluvium, you see are a surface melt formation only. The direction of the material movement during emplacement of the melt in the area indicates the thermal pulse that melted, and moved that surface originated somewhere just west of there. But as a result of leveling the land for irrigation, and farming, there is nothing left of the original terrains in the valley floor.
(Also known as Reedley Mountain among the locals)
lat 36.695991 lon –119.421076
20 miles northwest of Colvin mountain, and even closer to me, is Campbell mountain. The 2010 Geologic map of California defines this one as Mesozoic plutonic rocks. But if you do the effort, and go to the top, and you look at the rocks peeking out through the melt you will see for yourself that the heart of the Mountain is Mesozoic meta-sedimentary strata, not plutonic rock. And the yet old 1966 Geology map defined it as Mesozoic intrusive. On those two maps from different times we have two different definitions for the same rock. And neither of them got it right. The black fusion glazed outcrops of blast melt you see in this image are of the same composition as the melt at Colvin mountain.
Except that they are not shaped like holes in the ground, the surface rocks of Colvin, and Campbell Mountains, as well as the outer surfaces of many of the local foothills, consist of materials like impact melt, and mega breccias, you would only expect to find in an impact structure. But no crater, and no indication of any direct kinetic impact with the ground.
This view of Campbell mountain is from my driveway
My home is near the compass symbol in the upper right of the image below.
As with Colvin mountain to the south, Jesse Morrow mountain next door to the north, and many of the local foothills, the entire outer surface is welded. But here the directionality of the patterns of movement, and flow, in the melt point to a source somewhere to the southwest instead of straight west. The wind swept blast melt was blown upslope on the south, and west faces of the mountain because they are facing the blast.
Along the lower skirt of the mountain most of the welded alluvium has the appearance of granite. It is fine grained, and only partially welded. And the parent material was Quaternary alluvium from the San Joaquin Valley floor. It’s not the same material as the dense, hard, large grained, plutonic granites of the Sierra Nevada batholith at all.
200 million years ago, the granite pluton which became the Sierra Nevada
Mountains was still cooling slowly. And it was covered by 3 km to 4 km of overburden. As the Sierra Nevada was uplifted, the overburden washed down. And, with time, and continued uplift of the Sierra Nevada, the resulting sedimentary deposits became the meta-sedimentary heart of Campbell Mountain. Over the ages, continued uplift of the Sierra Nevada has exposed, and tilted, the now meta-sedimentary strata about 45 degrees to the west. There has not been a volcanic vent on this side of the Sierra Nevada since before it began to be uplifted in the early Mesozoic.
You only need to get out of your car, and hike a couple of hundred yards up the mountain side, to break off a piece of the truth, and hold it in your hands. This typical burnt rock is about the size of a small car. And has some very interesting properties. Rocks like this are riddled with thermal fractures from cooling very quickly. And the whole rock is magnetic enough that any part of it can be picked up with a magnet.
Due to cooling so quickly, these rocks have an onion-like layered structure to them that makes the outer fusion crust very fragile. That same thermal fracturing makes it ring with a sound somewhere between a large drum, and a bell.
The empirical truth is that all of the dark outcrops on the south slope you see in the image above consist of accumulations of pristine, magnetic, thermal glazed, welded blast melt. Exactly like the those found on the west flanks of Colvin mountain 20 miles SE of here. There is no mention of the pristine, heat glazed burnt facies in the area on the maps, or in the literature for this place either. But the simple empirical fact, is that these burnt facies, and blast melted rocks do exist. And in a form, and location where terrestrial forces can not account for the heat, and pressure required to produce them.
Here we see a small, but typical, piece of geo-ablative blast melt that was chipped from a rock on the south flank of Campbell mountain. The lighter, inner surface material is a silicate that grades from a fine vesicular foam, or pumice-like texture, to recognizable grains, and clumps of partially welded alluvium… ordinary dirt kicked up from the San Joaquin valley floor. The exact chemistry of the is anyone’s guess at this point. But for what it’s worth, you can pick up any piece of this rock with a magnet. And much of it rings like fine China when tapped.
This rock accumulated from a superheated mist of of vaporized extra terrestrial material, and aerosol, geo-ablative, blast melt, mixed with dust, and dirt, whipped up from the valley floor. The final blast of heat glazed the outer surface to a depth of 3 mm to 5 mm.
Below, we see an enlarged section of that pristine fusion crust about 1 inch square. And we see that some of the black magnetic glazes on the outer surfaces of these rocks are pocked with countless little micro craters.
And on the other side of the mountain
On the lee, or down-wind, side of the mountain it gets even more dramatic. And in the view below, we see the material movement was down slope on the north side of the mountain.
This melt has many of the flow patterns we would expect to see of a geologically recent lava flow. But this is not a volcano. There is no vent here. And no volcanic structure of any kind. This melt does not consist of Lava.
Instead, in the leading edge of the flow you see rushing down the north face of Campbell Mountain, you will find welded mega-breccias mixed into the melt. And the breccias consist of large fragments of the original surface. But from the other side of the mountain. Only impact events make mega-breccias. And only giant impact events paint mountains with them.
Near the top of the mountain, on the right side of the image, you can clearly see the tilted Mesozoic meta sedimentary strata that is the mountains true heart peeking up through the melt. There is no mention in the literature of the pristine blast melt that was splashed, tumbled, blown upslope, and thermal glazed, on the south, and west flanks facing the blasts. And in these two images of the north face, and lee side, of the mountain, we see the melt was pushed up, and over the top in a cresting wave of mega-breccias, and melt.
The atmospheric blast that did this, hit the mountain with enough heat to flash melt the outer surface like a chunk of wax under a blowtorch. And with enough overpressure to blow the melted surface up, and over the top, in a cresting wave of mega-breccias, and melt, on the other side.
Like a freeze frame in time, the patterns of flow frozen into these blast effected materials at the time of their emplacement describe a thermal atmospheric explosive event of almost inconceivable violence.
There is very little sign of exfoliation, or hydrologic decomposition in the blast melted, fusion glazed, rocks of its outer surface. Whatever happened here, the black, thermal glaze on the outer surface of the magnetic, melt formations is almost perfectly pristine. Geologically ancient is not a valid part of the description.
I’ve sent specimens of the rocks at Campbell Mountain to Richard Firestone at LBL, Dr Firestone noted that the rock is magnetic. And he says he is going to test it to see if it is a match for the materials of the Younger Dryas Boundary layer. He also said it might be ‘some time’ before he could get back to me with the result. I’ll update this page as soon as I hear something from either of them.
This is where I get to make a few predictions.
1.) The specimens are going to be the mother load of ET Isotopes.
2.) If it is possible to get a reliable date for them, they will return a date as least as young as the YDB. Perhaps even younger, much younger.
3.) Since I am working from the postulate that almost 100% of the kinetic energy of the comet was translated into heat in the atmosphere, I don’t necessarily expect to se any planar fractures, or shocked minerals. But I see no reason to rule them out either.
If we turn around 180 degrees, and look at the neighboring hillside to just the north of there (Jesse Morrow Mountain on the map) we can clearly see the finger print of the blast wind welding the outer surface, and blowing the airburst melt upslope.
The old maps call the mountain Mesozoic. But in truth, while the heart of this mountain may date to the Mesozoic, like all of the local foothills, the pristine magnetic melt is only found on the outer surface. What was interpreted by some in the past, as the result of intrusive magma crystallizing into columns as it cooled, are in fact, the result of Geo-Ablative forces in a multiple, thermal airburst, impact event. The lines flowing north, and upslope, are a proxy for the flow of the blast wind as it followed the contours of the terrain, and welded the outer surface.
The dark outcrops at the upper, distal, edges of those flowing lines consist of wind-driven, geo-ablative melt. Contrary to some of the old maps, this blast melt is not even remotely similar to any form of intrusive igneous rock. And it’s not plutonic granite either. The blast melt consists of a welded, but porous, approximately 50/50, matrix of aerosol droplets, and particles, of black ablative blast melt, and a tan colored, silicate rich, material that varies in texture from a very fine pumice to still clearly recognizable particles, and clumps, of not quite welded, ordinary San Joaquin valley dirt. It’s some of the same ole dirt that I’ve played, and worked, in all my life.
Here’s the same ridge. But looking back at the western end of it from the other side. note the compass in the upper right of the image. the view is facing down to the south.
As with Campbell mountain next door to the south, here we see the melt dropped out of the wind like a cresting wave on the north side of the ridge.
Campbell Mtn. was defined as ‘Mesozoic Intrusive’ on the old 1966 California Geology map. Because when you hold a piece of the surface rocks in your hand the heat signature is unmistakable.
But the possibility of volcanism here has already been exhaustively debunked. There is no trace of a volcanic system. The aeromagnetic data, and the seismic data are as good as it gets. California has few peers in that respect. We know what’s under us all the way down to the hot, soft, and gooey stuff. And we have an especially good picture of the upper 10 miles. There is no rift, no fissure, no vent, and no magma chamber. Without those things there is no possibility of geologically young "magma intrusive" rock here. And no possible terrestrial source for the pristine burnt facies either. That’s why they re-defined the mountain as ‘Plutonic’ on the 2010 map. There is no longer any mention on the maps, or in the literature, of the burnt facies here. They simply swept the uncomfortable truth away.
If you are a scientist who would like to look at a specimen of the thermal glazed, magnetic airburst melt from Campbell, or Colvin, mountains you can contact me through the email link on the right.