From Wikipedia we read that ‘Crater’ may refer to:
- Impact crater, caused by two celestial bodies impacting each other, such as a meteorite hitting a planet
- Volcanic crater or caldera, formed by volcanic activity
- Subsidence crater, from an underground (usually nuclear) explosion
- A maar crater, a relief crater caused by a phreatic eruption or explosion
- pit crater, a crater that forms through sinking of the surface and not as a vent for lava
- Crater lake
- Explosion crater, a hole formed in the ground produced by an explosion near or below the surface.
Here we see a small Crater field on Mars. The largest of the small craters you see here is about 500 meters across. The consensus is that they are all impact craters. The problems we have here is in the uniform condition of the craters, and their sizes, and distribution.
If, as is assumed, impact events do indeed happen at a steady rate, and these impacts all happened one at a time, over a long period, then we should see some variation of condition from the earliest, to the most recent. Also, they are concentrated into fields of craters surrounded by large areas with no craters at all. If they fell one at a time, then they should be evenly distributed all over entire the surface of the planet. They could only be in a concentrated cluster like this, in exactly the same condition, if they all fell at the same time, in a meteoroid swarm.
On Mars, it is assumed without question that we are looking at impact craters. But here on Earth, if we see the same fractal distribution of craters, the tendency is to deny that so many impact craters could happen in a terrestrial surface; much less that a large cluster of small fragments could hit all at the same time.
Our astronomers tell us that a meteoroid swarm of small fragments is a more probable event, than a large, solid bolide. Yet most geologists agree that such things cannot be…. At least, not here on Earth.
But we are orbiting around in the very same shooting gallery as Mars. And in central, and eastern, New Mexico, there are thousands of small craters. All in the very same geologic condition. They are a bit small compared to the ones we see above. But the New Mexico craters have exactly the same fractal distribution as some of the crater fields on Mars. And except for differences in weathering that can be accounted for by different atmospheric conditions, they are in the very same geologic condition.
If those in New Mexico didn’t form by impact there is no reason to assume those in the images from Mars did either.
Until we’ve been there on the ground.