For the past half decade scientists like R.B. Firestone et al, D. J. Kennett et al, and others studying the stratigraphy of the Younger Dryas boundary layer , at various locations all over North America, where the YDB is exposed. Kept finding the same thing. And publishing the same result; extraterrestrial nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas Boundary layer.
They sparked a fierce debate in the academic community. And the fur is still flying.
Two other groups, Surovell et al, and Daulton et al, sampling slightly different locations, and materials, in the strata, and using different protocols, set out to challenge those works, and got a different result. They failed to find nanodiamonds. No surprises there folks. Neither of them sampled the same sedimentary materials as the studies they were challenging.
Rule #1 Thou shalt duplicate the experiment. They didn’t.
It never ceases to amaze me how many otherwise brilliant journalists, and scientists, wade into the YD impact debate. And are too darn lazy to read the whole list of wonky papers. (Things are moving so fast, that anything older than three years is almost outdated) So they skip to the conclusion blocks of the papers they read, without any idea what’s actually in the body of the work.
Pinter & Scott did the sample collection on the Daulton paper. (Sticky notes by Ted Bunch, NAU) Tyrone Daulton only did the best he could with the crap samples they gave him. And in spite of the hype, and negative spin, the press leaped on so joyously, they didn’t really sample any of the materials described in the works they were supposed to be challenging. It’s not even clear they sampled the YDB. And their sample collection protocols, and specimen characterization, wouldn’t do justice to a high school science fair project.
If you only read their conclusions, you’d think they buried the idea of extra terrestrial nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas Boundary layer.
But at the same time Pinter & Scott were wandering around lost in the desert, Andrei Kurbatov et al, were up on the Greenland Ice Sheet collecting ice core specimens from a layer of ice corresponding to the YDB. They published a new paper three days after the Daulton paper in the Journal of Cosmology reporting the Discovery of a nanodiamond-rich layer in the Greenland ice sheet.
If you want to read some actual, well done science. Go ahead, take your time, and get lost in the wonky stuff. There are sufficient diamond data in that paper (STEM, HRTEM, RAMAN, EELS, etc.) to settle the nanodiamond part of the debate once and for all. It is an empirical fact that ET diamonds occur in the YDB. ‘Nuff said.
So we have teams of scientists reporting multiple lines of evidence of a major extinction level impact event that devastated North America. But where did it happen? The thing that has been missing from the YD impact hypothesis all along is verifiable planetary scarring. And from the beginning, the rallying cry of opponents to the impact hypothesis was "where’s the crater?".
But it’s not just the Earth sciences that were finding evidence of a major cosmic catastrophe. The astronomers also have something to say. In Bill Napier’s ‘Paleolithic extinctions, and the Taurid Complex’, Professor Napier assures us that we have a convincing astronomical model. There is compelling evidence that we are talking about the impact showers of a very large, heavily fragmented, comet. And that the total mass of all of the fragments that impacted that day was somewhere on the order of 1.1 billion tons, as the Earth’s orbit took it through the the debris stream of the completely fragmented Taurid Progenitor.
If you can describe a beast, you can predict its footprints. Only those fragments on the leading edge of such a cluster, or stream of fragments, can be expected to fall into cold atmosphere. The rest are going to fall into already superheated impact plasma. And they just crank up the heat, and pressure. Enough heat, and pressure to make stone flow like windswept water in a storm for a moment, or two.
Extraordinary hypotheses require extraordinary proofs. Even if we spread that 1.1 billion tons out into a debris stream of more than ten thousand Tunguska class airbursts in a little over an hour. And 100% of the kinetic energy of the fragments is translated to heat, and pressure in the atmosphere, we may not see cratering, but we should still expect to see substantial planetary scarring from the heat, and overpressures, of the blasts. The ground didn’t get smashed into a crater. It got flash melted , and blown away. So, to fit the numbers given so far, our extraordinary proof needs to be something like a few hundred thousand cubic miles of fairly pristine, burnt facies, and blast effected materials.
We need to be able to show where whole mountain ranges were blown aside, like clumps of flour on a bakers table in some places. And in still other locations the terrains would have been flash melted like butter under a blowtorch. And blown away by the supersonic gusts of the airburst storm, into rivers of melt like pyroclastic flows. But, unlike the gravity driven density currents from a Plinean volcanic eruption, that are pulled down a slope after an ash column collapses, after being ablated from the original surfaces, our airburst melt would have been driven from behind by atmospheric pressure, like the debris laden froth, and foam, on a storm tossed beach.
The predicted nature of the beast, and it’s footprints, brings us to a conundrum in the Earth sciences. Since the 19th century, they have been founded on the unquestioned assumption that the present is the key to understanding the past. It isn’t in this case. And there is nothing in written history to compare this event to. It has also been assumed that the only possible source of enough heat to melt the rocks of the Earth is terrestrial volcanism.
So, If our hundreds of thousands of cubic miles of wind driven rivers of flash melted stone do exist, we expect they have already been misidentified as volcanic tuff. And the age may have been overestimated by orders of magnitude. But never the less, they should be in very good condition, exposed, and undisturbed, on the surface after only 12,900 years. Also sufficient volcanic vents, and magma chambers to account for it all will remain to be found.
The impact Zone
In fact, those pristine blast effected materials do exist. They are all present, and accounted for. And in spite of the fact that they are assumed to be mid Tertiary in age, they are in pristine condition, as if they only just cooled last year.
It goes to fluid mechanics, and explosive blast analysis. If you want to understand an explosive event after the fact, you should first look to the emplacement motions of the blast effected materials. The resolution of image data available for most of the continent is 1 meter per pixel or better. And we can confidently assign a directional vector to any given fragment of airburst impact melt. The materials of the primary impact zone are in good enough condition to read their fluid motions at the time of emplacement like a choreographic dance chart.
There is understandably a lot of resistance to the idea that one can make such a call by visual cues alone. So I’ve prepared a little demonstration.
It goes to Fluid Mechanics:
The motions of an unconstrained, pressure driven fluid will always be away from the driving force. Even when the fluid is melted stone being driven uphill. And when wind driven patterns of movement, and flow, become frozen into rivers of flash melted stone, they become a permanent, and faithful, record of the forces that melted, and moved, them.
And when they are in pristine condition, we can read their fluid motions at the moment of emplacement like a dance chart.
There is no need to guess about the nature of the explosive event those materials were born in, when we can see with almost perfect clarity how they moved as blast effected materials of that event.
Here’s a few examples.
At 30.169779, -105.648639 the ejecta was blown to the west. About 3.5 miles away, at 30.173885, -105.589431, and on the opposite side of the airburst impact vortex, the ejecta curtain was blown to the east. This is a common type of structure. The central peak is a post impact rebound of the surface up into the center of the impact vortices.
At 29.327291 -104.207709 the completely melted ejecta from The Benavides Impact Structure had been airborne for more than ten miles. It was carried downwind to the northwest by the winds of the impact storm. These Mountains consist 100% of impact ejecta, breccias, and melt.
At 29.024577, -103.917056, on the other side of the 17 Mile wide explosion that produced it, you will find that the ejecta was met head-on by the powerful winds of the impact storm. It was stopped at the edge of the shock wave. And it piled up into a mountain of mega-breccias, and impact melt, more than 800 feet high. (Only impact events make mega-breccias. And only giant impact events make mountains of them)
That same explosion also lofted a 100 meter wide impactite more than 80 kilometers. It landed in the still soft, but no longer moving, impact melt at 28.174660, 103,974744. Its momentum kept it plowing through the melt for another ten miles to the southwest.
We can’t be certain of the chemistry without field work. But by its very nature as a density current, we can know that it was all emplaced at hundreds of miles per hour. And we can be certain which way the material moved the moment it was emplaced. This is , after all, the 21st century, Hi resolution images at 1 meter per pixel of almost anywhere in central Mexico, and the rest of the continent for that matter, are only a mouse click away. We can confidently assign a directional vector to almost every pixel of image data that way. And we can read the fluid motions of any given fragment of those materials at the moment of emplacement, almost at a glance. And with a very high level of confidence, and precision.
They weren’t ‘pulled’ to their present positions down a slope. They were driven by atmospheric heat, and pressure. The standard model assumes they were emplaced during the mid tertiary. But that model ignores their pristine condition, undisturbed on the surface, since their emplacement. There are literally hundreds of thousands of cubic miles of such materials. And the emplacement motions of all of it can be mapped at comparable detail.
The foundation of this extraordinary impact theory (I still don’t know what to call it.)is based on the empirical fact that, with modern, 21st century image data, we can read the, directionality of the emplacement motions of all that melt with such accuracy, that the materials can be read like a choreographic dance chart.
It’s going to be a multi-disciplinary effort. But since since we can accurately determine the directionality of the airburst impact melt from the event to a resolution of better than 1 meter per pixel, the fledgling science of Fluid Mechanics has the trump card.
If we turn on Google Earth, we zoom in on any given location the impact zone, and we can positively identify the direction of flow. If we assign directional vectors as we go. Each square meter can be treated as 1 byte of directional data to build a motion map in this way. A fluid motion map like that of only a few megabytes, reveals the truth. And a gigabyte describes something too terrible for words.
But conceptually, we can go a little bit further. If each byte of our fluid motion data is thought of as one character of text in a written language of motion. Then the Mexican impact zone becomes a kind of ‘Rosetta Stone’ for learning to read a language in which the empirically true, geo-history of the world is recorded in intricate detail. And that’s the big rub.
The catastrophic geomorphology, that language of rocks in fluid motion describes, has almost no resemblance to the standard model.